[Archive] Letters From Mesopotamia



Back in 1967, the scholar A. Leo Oppenheim published a book filled with more reader-friendly samples of ancient Mesopotamian letters, which go some length toward bringing to life the everyday commotion, raiding, warfare, religion, commerce and political wrangling of those times. These letters were written in ancient Mesopotamia and beyond, in old Assyrian trading colonies in Anatolia and by kings in Canaan and Syria exchanging word with their liege, either the Hittite king or the Egyptian Pharaoh (Akkadian cuneiform was the universal diplomatic language of the bronze age).

Here’s the free PDF from the Oriental Institute of Chicago:

[align=center]Letters From Mesopotamia: Official, Business, and Private Letters on Clay Tablets from Two Millennia[/align]

The amount of cuneiform tablets (not to speak of petty fragments) uncovered by archaeologists during the last two centuries amount to well over 100’000, with probably more than a million tablets still in the ground. The sheer information preserved is enormous, and Assyriologists will have translation work to keep them occupied for many hundreds of years to come. However, vast though this clay treasure is, it is not the liveliest of ancient source material by a long shot. Writing started out as book keeping, and it shows in the Mesopotamian letters. When writing became used for more versatile tasks than keeping count of wares, it retained a stilted and formal manner, upheld by rigorous tradition in prestigious scribal schools over many centuries. The sheer age of Mesopotamian writing means that it’s boring, dry and business-like, but pretty interesting at times nonetheless. You will have to search out ancient Greek authors to find some sort of lively language developed in old writing!


I would like to share some of the more interesting Mesopotamian letters with you, should anyone wish to read it.

Letters from Mesopotamia presents a cherry-picked collection of more or less intact clay tablet letters. There are a lot of bureaucratic stuff, some law cases, omen-gazing and lots of merchant letters. There are royal correspondence and military letters. There are glimpses of disease and calamities, of convoluted ritual practices and  There are also personal disputes where the heated tempers of folk shine through the formal words.

And there are some astonishing amount of flattery from the Pharaoh’s Canaanite vassals to their boss. How would you like it to be addressed like this at the start of a letter?

Envelope: A letter of Kalbu to his lord (the guenna-official of


Tell my lord, the perfect, the gorgeous, the offspring of heaven,

our protective angel, the expert and effective warrior, the light

among his brothers, the shining gem, the trust of all important

persons, endowed with nobility, the provider for scholars, the

table laden for all people, outstanding among his peers, to whom

the gods Anu, Enlil, and Ea, and also the goddess Belet-ili, have

granted a treasure of graces and riches�?"tell my lord: Kalbu, who

is dust and but your favorite slave, sends the following message. …

Excerpt from letter 60
Or like this? Sufficiently crawling in the dust?
To the king, my lord, my god, my sun: A message of your servant

Abi-milki (of Tyre):

Seven times and again seven times I prostrate myself at the

feet of Your Majesty�?"I, the dust under the sandals of Your

Majesty. My lord is the sun (god) who rises over all the countries,

day after day, according to the ordinance of the sun god his gracious

father, whose sweet breath gives life and (which one)

craves(?) when he is hiding, who makes the entire country rest

under (the protection) of his mighty arm; who thunders in the

sky like the storm god so that the entire country trembles at

the sound of him.

This is the message of a slave to his master after he had heard

what the kind messenger of the king (said) to his servant upon

arriving here, and (felt) the sweet fragrance that came out of the

mouth of Your Majesty toward his servant. And he was craving(?)

the king’s fragrance before the arrival of the messenger of Your

Majesty. How should one not crave(?) for a fragrance which one’s

(text: my) nose remembers (so well)? And indeed, I was extremely

glad when the fragrance of the king wafted towards me

and there was a festival(?) every day because I was so glad. Is not

the entire world happy when it hears the kind messenger (who

comes) from the very presence of my lord. Also the entire country

was in awe of my lord when it heard about the sweet fragrance

and the kind messenger who had come to me. If Your

Majesty would have said “Rise up against a great army!” this

servant would have said to his master: “Aye, aye!” I am carrying

on my heart and my back the command of Your Majesty. The

sun rises over anybody who listens to Your Majesty and obeys

him in his place of office, and who craves(?) the sweet fragrance

from the mouth of his master, but the city of him who has not

listened to the command of your Majesty is (as good as) lost and

his house is lost; his fame is gone forever in the entire country.

Now look (at me), a servant who has listened to his master, his

city is fine, his house is fine, his fame is to endure forever.

You are the sun that rises above me and the wall of bronze

that towers (around me). And for this very reason and on account

of the mighty arm of Your Majesty, I rest secure.

This is what I have (still) to say to the Sun, my father, Your

Majesty: When will I see Your Majesty face to face?

Now I am guarding for Your Majesty Tyre, the great city,

waiting until the mighty arm of the king extends over me to give

me (from the mainland) water to drink and wood to warm me.

As to other matters: Zimrida, the king of Sidon, has been writing

every day to that criminal Azira, son of Abdi-Asratu about

everything he hears from Egypt. This I had to write to my lord

for it is proper that he know about it.

Letter 67
An important form of taxation in ancient Mesopotamia was corvée labour: Digging canals, building structures and doing other work for the state. Several letters are for fighting the bureaucracy:
Tell the governor of the Inland Region, whom the god

Marduk keeps in good health: Dingir-saga sends the following


May the gods Samas and Marduk keep you forever in good


I was very pleased when the god Marduk elevated you to high

office. I said to myself, "A man has been elevated who knows

me; he will do for me what I want. Even those officials around

here who do not know me personally will now do what I want

when I send them a message.

As to the case of the temple singer Nabium-malik, a native of

the town of Habuz, the man made the following deposition to

me. I quote him: "Nobody ever issued a summons for me

to do service as a porter. Now the governor of the Inland Region

has sent me notice, and (after I refused) they took a slave of mine

as a pledge."

This man, Nabium-malik, is a member of my household; he

is not a stranger. He is already performing six other work-obligations,

and he pays the fees incumbent on a high priest and a temple


I am sending you herewith this tablet of mine; if you truly

care for me, nobody must issue a summons for this man’s


Letter 8
Others are plain old nagging:
Tell the Lady Zinu: Iddin-Sin sends the following message:

May the gods Samas, Marduk, and Ilabrat keep you forever in

good health for my sake.

From year to year, the clothes of the (young) gentlemen here

become better, but you let my clothes get worse from year to

year. Indeed, you persisted(?) in making my clothes poorer and

more scanty. At a time when in our house wool is used up like

bread, you have made me poor clothes. The son of Adad-iddinam,

whose father is only an assistant of my father, (has) two new sets

of clothes [[i]break

Letter 16
Some bear witness to the despair of human misery:
Tell my master: Your slave girl Dabitum sends the following


What I have told you now has happened to me: For seven

months this (unborn) child was in my body, but for a month now

the child has been dead and nobody wants to take care of me.

May it please my master (to do something) lest I die. Come visit

me and let me see the face of my master! [[i]Large gap

Letter 17
Hardship, indeed, on a large scale. It is easy to imagine the chaos, the fear, the sweaty efforts and the barking masters during raids and warfare:
Tell Belsunu: Qurdusa sends the following message :

May the god Samas keep you in good health.

As you have certainly heard, the open country is in confusion

and the enemy is prowling around in it. I have dispatched letters to

Ibni-Marduk, to Warad-…, and to yourself. Take a lamb from the

flock for the diviner and obtain a divination concerning the cattle

and the flocks, whether they should move into my neighborhood;

if there will be no attack of the enemy and no attack by robbers

the cattle should come to where I am�?"or else bring them into

the town of Kish so that the enemy cannot touch them. Furthermore,

bring whatever barley is available into Kish and write me

a full report.

Letter 23
What is the worth of a man? Back in those days, they could give the exact market value!
Tell Ahu-klnum: Awll-Amurrim sends the following message:

Immediately after you left for the trip, Imgur-Sin arrived

here and claimed: “He owes me one-third of a mina of silver.”

He took your wife and your daughter as pledges. Come back

before your wife and your daughter die from the work of constantly

grinding barley while in detention. Please, get your

wife and your daughter out of this.

Letter 25
Theft is eternal:
Tell Nur-Samas, Awel-Adad, Sin-pilah, Silli-Adad, and the overseer

of the ten-man team: Samas-nasir (the governor of Larsa)

sends the following message:

This is really a fine way of behaving! The orchardists keep breaking

into the date storehouse and taking dates, and you yourselves

cover it up time and again and do not report it to me.

I am sending you herewith this letter of mine; bring these men

to me�?“after they have paid for the dates. And also the men from

the town Bad-Tibira [[i]end broken

Letter 33
Vehicle worries are no novelty:
Tell my lord Yasmah-Addu: Your servant Ila-Salim sends the

following message:

The king gave me a chariot; this chariot broke at its middle

section due to my constant traveling from the flatlands to the

mountains and back. So now there is no chariot available for me

to ride in when I have to go places. If it so pleases my lord, may

my lord give me a chariot.

I shall surely bring order into the land before my lord arrives.

I am the servant of my lord. May my lord not withhold a chariot

from me.

Letter 40
And neither is human cruelty. Anyone else think of Hobgoblins upon reading this?
Tell my lord: Your servant Bahdi-Lim sends the following message:

The body of a small child which was hardly one year old was

found lying in front of the old dike which is upstream from the

lower ditch openings(?) on the embankment of the river (Euphrates).

The body of the child was cut open at its waist and the [contents]

of its chest were placed on its head and it was [mutilated]

from head to foot. Nobody can tell whether it was male or female.

Nothing is left from its middle down to its lower end. The very

day I heard this report, I resorted to strict measures; I questioned

the overseers of the city quarters, the craftsmen and the harbor(?)

people, but neither any owner of this child nor its father or

mother nor anybody who could [shed light] on this incident came

forward. The very same day, I sent Bell-lu-dari to my lord with

this news. Also during the seven days since I sent Bell-lu-dari, I

have done much questioning but [[i]end broken

Letter 43
War was always a popular pastime:
Tell Yasmah-Addu: Your brother Isme-Dagan sends the following


The men of the Awlanum tribe assembled here, their entire

contingent, under Mar-Addu, in order to give battle. We fought

at Tu

Letter 48
Enjoy your luxury fridge! Having ice for drinks was the mark of wealthy and important families, since it had to be extracted with simple hand tools in mountainous areas during winter, then be packaged to minimize melting and then be transported to the customer. Activities of this sort might well take place in the lower reaches of the northwesterly Mountains of Mourns to provide Chaos Dwarf palaces with chilly drinks:
Tell Yasmah-Addu: King Aplahanda (of Carchemish) sends the

following message:

There is now ice available in Ziranum, much of it. Place your

servants there to watch over it so they can keep it safe for

you. They can bring it to you regularly as long as you stay

there. And if no good wine is available there for you to drink,

send me word and I will have good wine sent to you to drink.

Since your home town is far away, do write me whenever you

need anything, and I will always give you what you need.

Letter 53
Sometimes the Pharaoh has need of your daughter and your possessions:

Letter 65
Better keep those solders and chariotry in good order, or else…!
A message from the King of Carchemish: Tell Ibiranu, the king

of Ugarit:

Good health to you!

Here is Talmi-TeSup, the charioteer of the Sun (the Hittite

king), coming to you. He will inspect your infantry and your

chariotry to establish how many there are. Put all the soldiers

and the chariots which have been assigned to you by the palace

in good order. The Sun will make a count. The Sun must under

no circumstances be angered�?”(this is a matter of) life and death.

Letter 80
Kingly wrath clad in sayings:
An order of the king (Esarhaddon) to the “Non-Babylonian” inhabitants

of Babylon:

I am fine.

There is a proverb often used by people: "The potter’s dog,

once he crawls into the (warm) potter’s shop, barks at the

potter/3 There you are, pretending�?"against the commands of the

god�?"to be Babylonians, and what unspeakable things you and

your master have devised against my subjects! There is another

proverb often cited by people: “What the adulteress says at the

door of the judge’s house carries more weight than the words of

her husband.” Should you ask yourselves after I sent back to you,

with seals intact, your letters full of empty and insolent(?) words

which you had dispatched: “Why did he return the letters to us?”

I am telling you that I would have opened and read whatever

message my loyal and loving Babylonians had sent me but. . .

[[i]end broken

Letter 116
Rule of arms and fear:
To the lord of all kings, my lord (Assurbanipal), from your servant


May the gods Assur, Samas, and Marduk bestow upon the lord

of all kings, the king of all countries, my lord, happiness, wellbeing,

a long life, and a long reign.

The day I left the Sea Land, I dispatched five hundred men,

subjects of Your Majesty, to the town of Zabdanu with the order:

“Guard the outlying command posts in the region of Zabdanu,

make attacks against Elam, kill, and take booty.” When they

made an attack against the town of Irgidu�?"that town is four

hours’ march this side of Susa�?"they killed the sheikh of the

Yasil tribe, Ammaladin, two of his brothers, three of his uncles,

and two of his nephews; also Dalail, the son of Abiyadf, and two

hundred citizens of that town, and, although this was a long distance

for them, they took 150 prisoners. As soon as the sheikhs of

the town Lahiru and the Nugud tribesmen saw that my police

troops were making more and more attacks on the other side,

their (own), they became afraid, pledged themselves, and entered

into an agreement of vassalage with Musezib-Marduk, my sister’s

son, a servant of Your Majesty, to whom I have entrusted an

outlying command post, declaring: “We are now servants of the

King of Assyria.” They started moving all their available bowmen,

[joined] with Musezib-Marduk, and marched against Elam. They

put their hands on their [[i]break

Letter 120
Paying homage to Assyrian overlords carried its share of dangers:
To my lord the king (Esarhaddon[?]), from your servant the

guenna-official of Nippur:

May the gods Enlil, Ninurta, and Nusku bless Your Majesty.

The king knows that I am very sick. Had I not been sick, I

would have gone to the king to inquire about his health. So I am

sending herewith my brother Bel-usatu and ten well-born citizens

of Nippur to inquire about the health of Your Majesty.

The king well knows that people hate us everywhere on account

of our allegiance to Assyria. We are not safe anywhere;

wherever we might go we would be killed. People say: “Why

did you submit to Assyria?” We have now locked our gates tight

and do not even go out of town into the . . . We are (still) doing

our duty for the king; the envoy and the officials whom the king

has sent here have all seen this and can tell the king about it. But

the king must not abandon us to the others! We have no water

and are in danger of dying for lack of water. The king, your father,

wanted to give us the water rights for the Banitu-canal under this

condition: “Dig an outlet from the Banitu-canal toward Nippur.”

Letter 121
A glimpse of the administrated recruitment that kept the Assyrian war machine churning:
Order of the king (Assurbanipal

Letter 123
To be a subject king to a greater king was often a stormy affair where one wrong step could plunge the underling to his doom, and never more so than when the very guts of the overlords you had to serve were commonly hated, with that bile spilling over on you for subjecting yourself to their yoke:
[beginning destroyed] Nabu-[. . . ] said as follows: "

Letter 127
Likewise, fire was a danger that would not go away:
A letter from Madanu-[ . . . ] and Labasi-Marduk: To our lords,

the administrator and [ . . . ] :

May the gods Bel and Nabu, the Lady of Uruk, and the goddess

Nana ordain well-being and good health for our lords.

Fire broke out on the second day of the month DuDuzu, during

the night, in the temple of Nergal. The secretary and Nabu-nasir

went there to see about it, and, thanks to the protection granted

by the gods, everything in the temple is in good condition. We have

transferred the images to the temple of Lugal-Marad. All the

personnel of the temple of Nergal in Udannu have run away.

Guzanu, the son of Nabu-mukin-apli, who was in charge as guard,

has likewise run away. There is nobody there to serve the sacrificial

meal to the two Nergal images, and nobody to stand guard

in the temple Eanna and in the temple of Nergal. Our lords should

send a message to Nana-eris to dispatch here all of the temple

personnel, especially Ah-iddina and Sum-iddina, [the sons] of

Arad-Nana. May the lords

Letter 139
Interpreting omens were part of how people conducted their everyday business:
A letter of Kudurru to his brother Bel-rimanni:

A cloud appeared just when I was observing (the moon). Did

the eclipse take place? Please, send me an exact report. Find out

what (prayers) are to be said (on account of the eclipse). Write

down for me your well-considered opinion.

Send me an exact report concerning the finances(?) of Zerutu.

Letter 150
The best letter of them all is however one where the formal introduction of diplomatic letters is turned on its head by the stark tidings next presented, courtesy of Nergal. Is all well?
Tell the King of Egypt, my brother: Your brother the King of

Alasia (Cyprus), sends the following message:

I am well, my household, my wife, my sons, my officials, my

horses, my chariots�?"also everything in my land�?"are very well.

And so may my brother be well, also your household, your wives,

your sons, your officials, your horses, your chariots�?"and everything

in your land�?"be very well.

Dear brother, herewith I send to you, to Egypt, my messenger

together with your own messenger. My brother should not take

it to heart that I am sending herewith only five hundred pounds

of copper�?“I am sending this solely as a present for my brother�?”

because, my brother, it is so little. I swear that pestilence, the disease

of my lord Nergal, was in my land, and has killed all the

people of my land, so there was nobody to produce copper. So

my brother should not take it to heart (that it is so little copper).

Send back quickly your messenger together with my messenger,

then I will send you, my brother, all the copper which my brother

wants. Dear brother, you used to send me (ordinary) silver in

great quantity, but now give me fine silver, my brother�?"then I,

in turn, will send to my brother whatever my brother wants.

Now to another matter: Give me, my brother, the bull my

messenger will ask for, and dispatch to me, my brother, oil that

is perfumed, two kukkubu-jars of it, and, my brother, also send

me a diviner who is an expert in the behavior of eagles.

Now to another matter: People of my country are complaining

about my timber which the King of Egypt is taking away.

Would that my brother

Letter 66


Hehe we are so spoiled in this age. Imagine to have to chisel out a letter in clay and have a slave deliver it probably by foot :stuck_out_tongue:


Quite a change!

This message was automatically appended because it was too short.


Imagine to have to chisel out a letter in clay and have a slave deliver it probably by foot :P

I say good old times! :D


Gaah. I’d hate just having to type out something that convoluted.

I kept losing track of what they were talking about.


Would it be chiselled? Presumably it�?Td be softer clay so you�?Td only have to scratch it in, and once the tablet is finished then it�?Td be baked to set. Also for some things I imagine they might even use something the Romans used, a wax tablet so that it could be reused by simply heating the tablet (sounds kinda like a primative etchasketch put like that lol).


@Abecedar: Yeah, that stilted formal style is also convoluted. You can see writing has gone places since those early letters!

@Dînadan: Chiselling would only be done for stonework architecture inscriptions, such as on stelae and palace walls. Writing in soft clay would be done with a reed.